Fail-Safe Design for Equipment
In application of the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type), it is recommended that equipment shall be protected by adding a protective and/or retardant design circuit against deterioations and failures of the Ceramic Resonators.
Operating Temperature Ranges
The Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) shall not be operated beyond the specified "Operating Temperature Range" in the Catalog or the Specifications.
Changes/Drifts in Oscillating Frequency
It shall be noted that oscillating frequencies of the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) may drift depending IC applied (the type names, the manufacturer) and capacitance values of external capacitors C1* and C2* and the circuit design.
Note: *Refer to "Standard Test Circuit Diagram" in the Catalog or the individual Specification.
The Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) are always acompanied by suprious resonances. Hence in the circuit, suprious oscillations or stop of oscillation may occur depending on the circuit design (IC applied, frequency characteristics of the IC, supply voltage etc.) and/or environmental conditions Attention shall be paid to those abnormalities above mentioned in circuit design.
Stray capacitance and insulation resistances on printed circuit board may cause abnormalities of the Ceramic Resonators such as "higher harmonic oscillations".or "stop of oscillations".
Attention shall be paid to those abnormalities above mentioned in circuit design.
In application of the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) of Type P and L, two selected capacitors** shall be added for constructing "Colpitts Oscillation Circuit".
Note: **The capacitance values are specified in the Catalog or the Specification of Type P and L.
"Flow Soldering" shall not be applied to the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type).
"Ultrasonic Cleaning" and "Ultrasonic Welding" shall not be applied to the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) for preventing them from electrical failures and mechanical damages.
Overvoltage Spikes & Electrostatic Discharges
Abnormal/excess electrical stresses such as over voltage spikes and electrostatic discharges may cause electrical deteriorations and failures of the Ceramic Resonators and affect reliability of the devices.
Abnormal mechanical stresses
Abnormal/excess mechanical stresses such as falling shocks shall not be applied to the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) in handling, to prevent them from being damaged or craked.
Dropped devices shall not be used.
Surface Mouting Consideration
In automated mounting of The Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) on printed circuit boads, any bending, expanding and pulling forces or shocks against the Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) shall be kept minimum to prevent them from electrical failures and mechanical damages of the devices.
Solderings of The Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) shall conform to the Soldering conditions in the individual Specifications.
The Resonators are designed for "Reflow Solderings "
In the reflow solderings, too high Soldering temperatures and too large temperature gradient such as rapid heating or cooling may cause electrical failures and mechanical damages of the devices.
Following soldering conditions are recommended; Refer to Fig. 1
Preheating: 150oC for 60 to 120 seconds
Soldering Temperature:220oC for 10 seconds max.
Peak Soldering Temperature:240oC max.
Rosin-based and non-activated soldering flux is recommended.
The content of halogen in the flux shall be 0.1 wt. % or less.
Note: In case of water-solube type or activated type soldering flux being applied, the flux residues on the surface of PC boards, may have influences on the reliability of the Ceramic Resonators, and cause deteriorations and failures of the devices.
Post Soldering Cleaning
Application of ultrasonic cleaning is prophibited.
Cleaning Conditions such as kinds of cleaning solvents, immersion time and temperatures etc. shall be checked by experiments before production.
Operating and Storage Conditions
The Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) shall not be operated and/or stored under following environmental conditions:
To be exposed directly to water or salt water
To be exposed directly to sunlight
Under conditions of dew formation
Under conditions of corrosive atomosphere such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfurous acid, chlorine and ammonia
Long Term Storage
The Ceramic Resonators (Chip Type) shall not be stored under severe conditions of high temperatures and high humidities.
Store them indoors under 40(C max. and 75% RH max. Use them within one year and check the solderability before use.